Have you seen … ?

Here are some suggestions for some good films. Some are cinema perfection, others flawed but I treasure for sentimental reasons. Some you will have seen, others hopefully are new to you and may bring you a couple of hours of delight or catharsis.

Particle Fever (2013) (Levinson, Kaplan) (Netflix, Amazon). Tag along as quite charming and admirable physicists hunt the Higgs Boson at the LHC. It’s glorious what we clever apes can discern. Trailer.

A Separation (2011) (Farhadi) (Amazon, iTunes). A family struggles with complexities of life in contemporary Iran. Modernity vs. fundamentalism. An eye opener. What I’d give to screen this for the new administration (instead of Finding Dory). (Mood note: the father is dying of Alzheimer’s — unflinching and grim.) Trailer. Ebert.

Departures (2008) (Takita) (Japanese, subtitles). A young man takes work as an undertaker. How a culture deals with dying and living. Trailer. Ebert.

The Incredibles (2004) (Bird) (Amazon, iTunes). My favorite Pixar film. So clever. Trailer. Ebert.

Spirited Away (2002) (Miyazaki) (Animated, Japanese, dubbed). A girl has no name. A 10 year old girl is swept away into in a spirit bathhouse wonderland. Trailer elided (spoilers). Ebert. IYLTYL: Princess Mononoke.

Swordsman (1990) (Hark) (Hong Kong, subtitles). A rollicking wuxia adventure with love, honor, friendship, and song, in pursuit of a sacred scroll of sworsdmanship. Less polished, more fun, than Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Trailer. IYLTYL: Swordsman 2.

Diva (1981) (Beineix) (Amazon). Cool and stylish (for its time) and engrossing French thriller. Trailer. Ebert: “a dazzling kaleidoscope of sex, action and startling images.”

Stunt Man (1980) (Rush) (Amazon). Peter O’Toole as the manipulative director, remembered here because of the delicious sense of being cynically manipulated. Not everyone’s cup of tea, though — YMMV. Ebert.

Les Parapluies de Cherbourg (1964) (Demy) (Musical, French, subtitles) (Amazon, iTunes, Criterion). Luminous Catherine Deneuve and Michel Legrand’s musical perfection. Riotous color. So bittersweet. Trailer. Ebert. IYLTYL: Les Demoiselles de Rochefort. La La Land can’t hold a candle to this.

Champagne for Caesar (1950) (Whorf). Beauregard Bottomley (Ronald Coleman), walking encyclopedia, locks horns with Vincent Price in a silly bit of 1950s quiz show fun. Featuring Caesar, a smart alec African Grey parrot. Youtube.

It’s a Wonderful Life (1946) (Capra) (Amazon, iTunes). A good man, lost, is blessed with an unparalleled gift: seeing how many other people’s lives he has touched and how much richer we all are for his goodness.

A Canterbury Tale (1944) (Powell & Pressburger) (Amazon, Netflix, iTunes, Criterion). My favorite film. Three young people (American GI, British soldier, and a British land girl), thrown together in Kent, set out to uncover the Glue Man. What Britain means (meant).  IYLTYL: I Know Where I’m Going!, A Matter of Life and Death, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp, Black Narcissus, The Red Shoes.

Love Me Tonight (1932) (Mamoulian). A clever pre-code musical with Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald. Such fun. Trailer. Isn’t It Romantic?

Trouble in Paradise (1932) (Lubitsch). Pure confection. Effervescent, sexy, sly, suave, sophisticated, witty jewel thieves comedy. Ebert.

GRVI Phalanx joins The Kilocore Club

The work-in-progress GRVI Phalanx massively parallel accelerator framework has been ported to the Xilinx Virtex UltraScale+ XCVU9P.

On Dec. 30, 2016, a design with 30 rows by 7 columns of clusters of 8 GRVI RISC-V cores + 128 KB CRAM (cluster RAM) + a 300-bit Hoplite NOC router — a total of 1680 cores and 26 MB of SRAM — booted up and tested successfully, running a message passing matrix multiply workload on all 1680 cores, in a XCVU9P-FLGA2104-2L-E-ES1 device in a Xilinx VCU118 evaluation kit.

This 1680 core GRVI Phalanx is the first operational kilocore RISC-V, the first kilocore 32b RISC in an FPGA, and the most 32b RISC cores on a chip in any technology.

1 core, 32 cores, 1680 cores -- RISC-V scales up! A 1-core Si-Five HiFive-1, a 2x2x8=32-core GRVI Phalanx in a Digilent Arty / XC7A35T, and a 30x7x8=1680-core GRVI Phalanx in a Xilinx VCU118 / XCVU9P

1 core, 32 cores, 1680 cores — RISC-V scales up! A 1-core Si-Five HiFive-1, a 2x2x8=32-core GRVI Phalanx in a Digilent Arty / XC7A35T, and a 30x7x8=1680-core GRVI Phalanx in a Xilinx VCU118 / XCVU9P.

Here is the basic cluster tile architecture redesigned for UltraScale+ and its new 288 Kb UltraRAM jumbo-SRAM blocks. The present design includes 210 instances of this tile.

A GRVI Cluster tile with 8 GRVI RISC-V cores, 128 KB multiported bank interleaved shared cluster RAM, optional accelerators (here, none), and a 300-bit wide Hoplite NOC router.

A GRVI cluster tile with 8 GRVI RISC-V cores, 128 KB multiported bank interleaved shared cluster RAM, optional accelerators (here, none), message passing NOC interface, and a 300-bit wide Hoplite NOC router.

An example 1680 GRVI system implemented in a Xilinx Virtex UltraScale+ VU9P. This GRVI Phalanx comprises NX=7 x NY=30 = 210 clusters, each cluster with 8 GRVI cores and a 8-ported 128 KB cluster shared memory. The clusters are interconnected on a Hoplite NOC, with the Hoplite routers configured with 290b data payloads (including 32b address and 256b data), achieving a bandwidth of about 70 Gb/s/link and a NOC bisection bandwidth of 900 Gb/s. Each cluster can send or receive 32 B per cycle into the NOC. The GRVI Phalanx architecture anticipates a variety of configurable accelerators coupled to the processors, the cluster shared RAM, or the NOC.

An example 1680 GRVI system implemented in a Xilinx Virtex UltraScale+ VU9P. This GRVI Phalanx comprises NX=7 x NY=30 = 210 clusters, each cluster with 8 GRVI cores and a 8-ported 128 KB cluster shared memory. The clusters are interconnected on a Hoplite NOC, with the Hoplite routers configured with 290b data payloads (including 32b address and 256b data), achieving a bandwidth of about 70 Gb/s/link and a NOC bisection bandwidth of 900 Gb/s. Each cluster can send or receive 32 B per cycle into the NOC. The GRVI Phalanx architecture anticipates a variety of configurable accelerators coupled to the processors, the cluster shared RAM, or the NOC.

An extended abstract with additional detail on this work has been submitted to, and hopefully will be presented at, the OLAF’17 workshop at FPGA’17.

‘Computing on Programmable Logic’ at Microsoft Research Faculty Summit 2016

Yesterday I had the privilege of speaking on Computing on Programmable Logic (slides) in the ‘Computing with Exotic Technologies and Platforms’ session at the Microsoft Research Faculty Summit 2016.

Abstract: “We have seen the birth of many exotic architectures in recent years, from a quantum computer that promises to achieve exponential speed-ups over conventional computers, to DNA computation that performs disease diagnostics and therapy, to Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that provide a flexible toolkit for implementing architectures such as Microsoft’s Catapult fabric for large-scale datacenters. Each of these exotic technologies enable novel solutions to challenging problems and require equally novel methods to program and design them. We will highlight the advances in their applications and the challenges behind developing their toolchains and programming environments.”

GRVI Phalanx Update

An update on the work-in-progress GRVI Phalanx.


An extended abstract and brief talk on GRVI Phalanx was presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Overlay Architectures (OLAF-2) at FPGA 2016.

GRVI Phalanx was discussed in the short talk Software-First, Software Mostly: Fast Starting with Parallel Programming for Processor Array Overlays at the Arduino-like Fast-Start for FPGAs pre-conference workshop at FCCM 2016. [Slides]

The first refereed paper on GRVI Phalanx was presented yesterday at the 24th IEEE International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM 2016): GRVI Phalanx: A Massively Parallel RISC-V FPGA Accelerator Accelerator and received the FCCM 2016 Best Short Paper Award. [PDF]

Hardware Changes: Version 0.2

Here are some of the changes made to the GRVI Phalanx design since it was first described at the 3rd RISC-V Workshop. This is now version 0.2.


  • LB/LBU/LH/LHU/SB/SH: Load/store byte and halfword alignment functionality is now configured OFF in the GRVI PEs. The LdMux and StMux units have been factored out of GRVI and into the GRVI cluster, each set of muxes shared by a pair of cores.
  • MUL/MULH/MULHU/MULHSU: The multiply instructions from the RISC-V “M” extension are now enabled by default and are implemented in the GRVI cluster. Each pair of processors shares one DSP-based multiplier. This consumes 200 DSP48s in the 400 PE GRVI Phalanx for Kintex UltraScale 040, leaving 1720 DSP48s for use by accelerators.
  • SL*/SR*: By default, fast left and right shift instructions are also implemented in these DSP-based multipliers.
  • LR/SC: These atomic instructions from the RISC-V “A” extension are now enabled by default. Part of the implementation is in the GRVI core and part in the GRVI cluster memory arbiters. The implementation considerations were discussed on the RISC-V mailing lists here.


  • A Phalanx system may be configured to replace the cluster at (NX-1,NY-1) with a character mode VGA cluster with a 32 KB text frame buffer.
  • Hoplite multicast message routing is now enabled by default. An agent can sent a message to every cluster on a given row, given column, or to every cluster on the NOC. If desired, all IRAMs in all clusters in a Phalanx may be updated with a single burst of 1024 XY-multicast messages.

Introducing GRVI Phalanx: A Massively Parallel RISC-V FPGA Accelerator Accelerator

GRVI is an FPGA-efficient RISC-V RV32I soft processor core, hand technology mapped and floorplanned for best performance/area as a processing element (PE) in a parallel processor. GRVI implements a 2 or 3 stage single issue pipeline, typically consumes 320 6-LUTS in a Xilinx UltraScale FPGA, and currently runs at 300-375 MHz in a Kintex UltraScale (-2) in a standalone configuration with most favorable placement of local BRAMs.

Phalanx is massively parallel FPGA accelerator framework, designed to reduce the effort and cost of developing and maintaining FPGA accelerators. A Phalanx is a composition of many clusters of soft processors and accelerator cores with extreme bandwidth memory and I/O interfaces on a Hoplite NOC.

GRVI Phalanx was introduced today at the 3rd RISC-V Workshop at Redwood Shores, CA.

A work-in-progress 5x10x8 = 400 processor configuration in a KU040 in a Xilinx KCU105 and a 2x2x8 = 32 processor configuration in a Xilinx Artix-7 35T in an Digilent Arty were demonstrated in the demo/poster session.

A 10x5x8 = 400 processor GRVI Phalanx

For more information please visit the GRVI Phalanx page.

Introducing Hoplite: An FPGA-Optimal Router for Extreme Bandwidth NOCs

Hoplite is a configurable, general purpose, FPGA-optimal 2D router and tools for implementation of efficient network on chip (NOC) interconnection of diverse processors, accelerators, other client cores, and extreme bandwidth (100+ Gb/s) interfaces.

The first paper on Hoplite is presented today at FPL 2015:

Hoplite: Building Austere Overlay NoCs for FPGAs, Nachiket Kapre, Jan Gray.
25th International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications, Sept. 2015. Received the Michael Servit Best Paper Award. [PDF]

For more information please visit the Hoplite page.

Stop Everything, We’re Doing 8-LUTs

[With apologies/thanks to The Onion]

Commentary • Opinion • business • ISSUE 15•03 • March 6, 2015
By Josh Gane, CEO and President, XilTera

Would someone tell me how this happened? We were the vanguard of programmable logic. The XilTera StraTex was the cool device to design in. Then the other guy came out with a 6-LUT FPGA. Were we scared? Hell, no. Because we hit back with a little thing called the CLM. That’s a 6-LUT with a dual ported synchronous LUT RAM. For register files and so much more. But you know what happened next? Shut up, I’m telling you what happened—the bastards went to superfracturable LUTs. Now we’re standing around looking foolish selling plain 6-LUTs and a LUT RAM. RAM or not, suddenly we’re the chumps. Well, screw it. We’re going to 8-LUTs.

Sure, we could go to 7-LUTs next, like the competition. That seems like the logical thing to do. After all, 6-LUTs worked out pretty well, and seven is the next number after six. So let’s play it safe. Let’s make a 7-input 6,6-LUT and call it the UltraLUT. Why innovate when we can follow? Oh, I know why: Because we’re a business, that’s why!

You think it’s crazy? It is crazy. But I don’t give a damn. From now on, we’re the ones who have the edge in the LUT inputs game. Are they the best programmable logic a designer can get? Hell, no. XilTera is the most programmable programmable logic around.

What part of this don’t you understand? If 4-LUTs are good, and 6-LUTs are better, obviously 8-LUTs would make us the best freaking FPGA that ever existed. Comprende? We didn’t claw our way to the top of the FPGA game by clinging to the 4-LUT industry standard. We got here by taking chances. Well, 8-LUTs are the biggest chance of all.

Here’s the report from Engineering. I don’t want to hear those three damnable letters V.P.R. ever again! They don’t tell me what to invent—I tell them. And I’m telling them to stick two more LUT inputs in there. I don’t care how. Make the mux tree FinFETs so thin they’re invisible. Put some LUT configuration cells in the CLM cluster switchbox. Partially populate it. I don’t care if they have to cram the seventh and eighth input in perpendicular to the other six, just do it!

You’re taking the “balanced” part of “balanced architecture” too literally, grandma. Cut the strings and soar. Let’s hit it. Let’s roll. This is our chance to make programmable logic history. Let’s dream big. All you have to do is say that 8-LUTs can happen, and it will happen. If you aren’t on board, then screw you. And if you’re on the board, then screw you and your father. Hey, if I’m the only one who’ll take risks, I’m sure as hell happy to hog all the glory when the 8-LUT FPGA becomes the device for the U.S. of “this is how we reconfigurably compute now” A.

People said we couldn’t go to 6-LUTs. It’ll blow up the size of the input muxes and configuration bitstream, the LUT mux tree wiring will be too long, they said. Well, we did it. Now some egghead in a lab is screaming “8-LUTs are crazy?” Well, perhaps he’d be more comfortable in the labs at Lactel, working on antifuse crossbars. ONO, my ass!

Maybe I’m wrong. Maybe we should just ride in AltLinx’s wake and make voltage regulators. Ha! Not on your damn life! The day I shadow a penny-ante outfit like AltLinx is the day I leave the FPGA game for good, and that won’t happen until the day I die! The market? Listen, we make the market. All we have to do is put her out there with a little jingle. It’s as easy as, “Hey, technology mapping complex datapaths with anything less than 8-input LUTs is like playing pushing-on-a-rope whack-a-mole with some bad-approximation-timing-model physical synthesis CAD.” Or “There’ll be so few logic levels between the hard logic blocks, I could put Intel out of business.”

I know what you’re thinking now: What’ll people say? Mew mew mew. Oh, no, what will people say?! Grow up. When you’re on top, people talk. That’s the price you pay for being on top. Which XilTera is, always has been, and forever shall be, Amen, 8-LUTs, sweet Jesus in heaven.

Wait. I just had a stroke of genius. Are you ready? Open your mouth, baby birds, cause Mama’s about to drop you one sweet, fat nightcrawler. Here she comes: Put another carry chain on that sucker, too. And hell, why stop there? Two write ports. That’s right. 8-LUTs, fracturable into four 6-LUTs, four clock enables on the flops, two carry chains, 256b LUT RAM, and two write ports. You heard me—two write ports. It’s a whole new way to think about memory bandwidth intensive massively parallel accelerators. Don’t question it. Don’t say a word. Just key the music, and call the chorus girls, because we’re on the edge—the rising clock edge—and I feel like dancing.

Welcome Xilinx UltraScale+ and Zynq UltraScale+

This week Xilinx announced UltraScale+ and Zynq UltraScale+, its new family of 16 nm TSMC 16FF+ FinFET based FPGA and FPGA-MPSoC products. First tape out in 2Q15, first product ship 4Q15.

In the old days one could read a new FPGA’s ~30 page data sheet, digest it for an hour, and write a concise summary of all the new capabilities. But these UltraScale+ devices and tools, designed to appeal to diverse markets and applications, are so comprehensive and complex as to defy such a short take. Instead you ought to set aside some quality time to review these overview documents and pages:

In lieu of an overview summary, here are three new UltraScale+ highlights that are most significant and enabling from my perspective:

  1. Energy efficiency: the 16 nm FinFETs bring a one technology node reprieve of classic Dennard Scaling. In particular “The -1L and -2L speed grades in the UltraScale+ families can run at one of two different Vccint operating voltages. At 0.72V, they operate at similar performance to the Kintex UltraScale and Virtex UltraScale devices with up to 30% reduction in power consumption. At 0.85V, they consume similar power to the Kintex UltraScale and Virtex UltraScale devices, but operate over 30% faster.” The process advance and numerous architectural and IP/tool advances will provide welcome and enabling power savings.
  2. SRAM memory capacity: the new UltraRAM tier of block RAM, dual port 4Kx72 (32 KB), complements good old RAMB36 block RAM, dual port 1Kx36 (~4 KB). The new devices include 320-1536 UltraRAM blocks (90-432 Mb, 10-49 MB) of high bandwidth integrated SRAM. Just as an example, in the largest announced device, XCVU13P, there is SRAM enough for 1024 soft processor cores to each have a private 4 KB L1 I$, 4 KB L1 D$, and 32 KB L2$, and also share a many-banked 16 MB L3$ (wow!), not including leftover BRAM and all the distributed LUT RAM.
  3. MPSoC: the four 64b ARM Cortex-A53 cores, MALI GPU, 64b/72b DDR4 DRAM, much greater PS-PL interconnect, and many, many other features, in this “Zynq v2” line, reposition it from limited embedded system roles (<= 1 GB DRAM) towards hosting almost any application scenario you can imagine, from Android ultrasound tablets to driver assist (can we say “self driving cars” yet?) to data center accelerators.

I congratulate and thank the thousands of staff at Xilinx, TSMC, ARM, and their partners for another stupendous engineering tour de force that will enable us to develop myriad new applications and change the world.

The Past and Future of FPGA Soft Processors

Earlier this month I had the privilege of giving a keynote at Reconfig 2014. I decided to speak on the past and future of FPGA soft processors. This is my twentieth anniversary of working (on and off) in this field so this seemed an apt time and opportunity to share my perspective on where FPGA soft processors came from and what their continuing utility and prospects might be in the decade ahead — the autumn of Moore’s Law, the winter of Dennard Scaling.

Design productivity is still a challenge for reconfigurable computing. It is expensive to port a software workload to RTL, to maintain the RTL as the workload evolves, and to wait for hours to recompile a bitstream after each design change. Soft processors can help mitigate these costs, and provide new pathways to application acceleration. A mid-range FPGA can now host hundreds of soft CPUs and their interconnection network, and such heterogeneous massively parallel processor and accelerator arrays can sustain hundreds of operations, memory accesses, and branches per cycle.

This talk will look back on the history and diversity of soft processor cores for FPGAs, and their continuing relevance for the decade ahead. What new tools, IP, and infrastructure will help us to exploit the coming million LUT, 10 TFLOPS FPGAs? Along the way we will revisit an austere design esthetic and an implementation methodology for crafting FPGA-optimized soft cores, and see how the lessons of mapping one processor into one 1995 FPGA can inform us how to design massively parallel programmable accelerators going forward.

Here are the slides.

Quick FPGA Hacks: Population count

Presented at FPL2014 the paper “Pipelined Compressor Tree Optimization using Integer Linear Programming” by Martin Kumm and Peter Zipf, University of Kassel uses clever (Xilinx) slice-wide (four 6-LUTs + CARRY4) based compressors to reduce as many as 12 input bits to 5 sum bits for an efficiency of up to (12-5) / 4 = 1.75 bits/LUT. This reminded me of a nice application of compressors in FPGAs — population count a.k.a. bit count, e.g. determine the number of one bits set in a word — which uses simpler LUT-based (no carry chain) compressors to good effect. I first learned about this approach in some Altera documentation. Using modern FPGAs’ 6-LUTs it is easy to build a 6-bit wide population count from a bitvector [5:0] input in one LUT delay. This is a “6:3 compressor”:

// 6:3 compressor as a 64x3b ROM -- three 6-LUTs
module c63(
    input [5:0] i,
    output reg [2:0] o);    // # of 1's in i

    always @* begin
        case (i)
        6'h00: o = 0; 6'h01: o = 1; 6'h02: o = 1; 6'h03: o = 2;
        6'h04: o = 1; 6'h05: o = 2; 6'h06: o = 2; 6'h07: o = 3;
        6'h08: o = 1; 6'h09: o = 2; 6'h0A: o = 2; 6'h0B: o = 3;
        6'h0C: o = 2; 6'h0D: o = 3; 6'h0E: o = 3; 6'h0F: o = 4;
        6'h10: o = 1; 6'h11: o = 2; 6'h12: o = 2; 6'h13: o = 3;
        6'h14: o = 2; 6'h15: o = 3; 6'h16: o = 3; 6'h17: o = 4;
        6'h18: o = 2; 6'h19: o = 3; 6'h1A: o = 3; 6'h1B: o = 4;
        6'h1C: o = 3; 6'h1D: o = 4; 6'h1E: o = 4; 6'h1F: o = 5;
        6'h20: o = 1; 6'h21: o = 2; 6'h22: o = 2; 6'h23: o = 3;
        6'h24: o = 2; 6'h25: o = 3; 6'h26: o = 3; 6'h27: o = 4;
        6'h28: o = 2; 6'h29: o = 3; 6'h2A: o = 3; 6'h2B: o = 4;
        6'h2C: o = 3; 6'h2D: o = 4; 6'h2E: o = 4; 6'h2F: o = 5;
        6'h30: o = 2; 6'h31: o = 3; 6'h32: o = 3; 6'h33: o = 4;
        6'h34: o = 3; 6'h35: o = 4; 6'h36: o = 4; 6'h37: o = 5;
        6'h38: o = 3; 6'h39: o = 4; 6'h3A: o = 4; 6'h3B: o = 5;
        6'h3C: o = 4; 6'h3D: o = 5; 6'h3E: o = 5; 6'h3F: o = 6;

A 36b popcount may be implemented using nine such 6:3 compressors and a small ternary adder. The first six compressors determine the no. of ones in each bundle of 6 input bits:

// 36-bit bitcount
module pop36(
    input [35:0] i,
    output [5:0] sum);  // # of 1's in i

    wire [2:0] c0500, c1106, c1712, c2318, c2924, c3530, c0, c1, c2;

    // add six bundles of six bits
    c63 c0500_(i[ 5: 0], c0500);
    c63 c1106_(i[11: 6], c1106);
    c63 c1712_(i[17:12], c1712);
    c63 c2318_(i[23:18], c2318);
    c63 c2924_(i[29:24], c2924);
    c63 c3530_(i[35:30], c3530);

These transform the problem of adding 36 bits to that of adding six 3b vectors. Surprisingly these can also be added with another round of compressors, by focusing on the [0], [1], and [2] bit positions separately.

    // sum the bits set in the [0], [1], and [2] bit positions separately
    c63 c0_({c0500[0],c1106[0],c1712[0],c2318[0],c2924[0],c3530[0]}, c0);
    c63 c1_({c0500[1],c1106[1],c1712[1],c2318[1],c2924[1],c3530[1]}, c1);
    c63 c2_({c0500[2],c1106[2],c1712[2],c2318[2],c2924[2],c3530[2]}, c2);

Now the total number of bits is (c0 * 2^0) + (c1 * 2^1) + (c2 * 2^2):

    assign sum = {2'b0,c0} + {1'b0,c1,1'b0} + {c2,2'b0};

The ternary adder is sufficiently simple that synthesis maps it to two levels of pure LUTs (no carry chain). All totaled, this has a delay of four LUTs and runs at 370 MHz in a Kintex-7 -1 speed grade.  By adding a pipeline register between the compressors and the ternary add, the circuit is reduced to two LUT delays, and runs at 550 MHz.  By adding a pipeline register between each level of LUTs, the critical path is under 1.2 ns, which could run at 860 MHz. However, the minimum clock period for this device is 1.6 ns (625 MHz). Happy hacking!